As a stamping process engineer, plus my previous work experience as a parts supplier, I have a relatively deep understanding of this topic. Let me analyze for you from a single stamping part, why the more cars are made, the cheaper they are.
Under normal circumstances, automobile OEMs will directly purchase small stamping parts or sub-assemblies from parts suppliers. Here we take stamping single parts as a case to understand the composition of a quotation from suppliers to automobile OEMs.
Parts suppliers get quotation requirements from automakers, such as a simpleFuel pump installation bracket, tooling cost apportioned to 50,000 units, estimated annual output of 60,000 unitsthe product is as follows:
1. After getting the digital model of the part, the parts supplier will analyze the parts through software to calculate the sheet metal of most sizes, so as to calculate the weight of the material, and then calculate the zero according to the quotation of the corresponding steel model of the steel factory. partsmaterial fee. For example, the material of the fuel pump mounting bracket above is 340/590DP, and the final material cost is 0.5 yuan after excluding the amount that can be sold for waste.
2. Then, based on the size of the part sheet, part shape, material model, and delivery method, estimate the mold size, weight, material, and whether there is a special mechanism, the size and weight of the inspection tool, etc. (if it is an assembly, there will be welding The cost of fixture tooling).For example, the tooling cost of the fuel pump mounting bracket above is 110,000 molds, and the inspection tool cost is 6,000, which is allocated to a single part.Tooling feeThe price is 2.34 yuan.
3. At the same time, match the appropriate stamping machine model, machine quantity and delivery method according to the size of the mold and pressure requirements. Here you can get the processing fee required for this part, and the supplier will quote according to the tonnage of the stamping machine.The above fuel pump mounting bracket is matched to the PRG 315T stamping machine, and then the delivery method is one out of two (meaning that one stamping can get two parts), and the final stampingprocessing feeUse is 0.38 yuan.
4. The supplier will also calculate the internal circulation of the product, andFinished product shipping and packaging container charges, the quantity and size of this packaging container need to be calculated based on the estimated annual sales volume of the product. Because the single product of the above fuel pump mounting bracket is small, the cost of this part is only 0.03 yuan. (If it is an assembly or an outer panel, in order to prevent product deformation, a special product rack is required, and the number of products transported per vehicle is very small. The cost of this part is relatively large, so everyone in the automotive industry knows that many suppliers The chain is run with the car factory to reduce the cost of this part, and on the other hand, it can also reduce product quality problems caused by the transportation process, such as deformation, etc.)
5. Of course, the supplier’s quotation will also take into accountFinance costs and management service feesafter all, the repayment cycle of some OEMs can drag down suppliers, so this part of the cost is taken for granted. Under normal circumstances, the ratio of this part of the cost is generally the above (material cost + processing fee + packaging and transportation fee) * 20 %about.
So the aboveQuotation for Fuel Pump Mounting Bracket=0.5+2.34+0.38+0.03+(0.5+0.38+0.03)*0.2=3.43 yuan.
However, in the actual process, the components and products provided by the supplier may be sub-assemblies, which must include the allocation of fixtures, spot welding, nuts and studs, rubber strips, etc.
So when you see the composition of this quotation, you will find that when the actual sales volume of this model exceeds 50,000, the allocation of this tooling is gone, and the quotation of the fuel pump mounting bracket becomes = (0.5+0.38+0.03 )*1.2=1.09 yuan.
That’s right, you read that right, the cost has been greatly reduced, so if a car sells better, it will make more money in the future, and the more it is built, the cheaper it will be. Of course, the above is calculated theoretically. The calculation standard is small stamping parts. If it is a large stamping part and then apportioned to 100,000 units, there will not be such a large cost reduction. The maintenance of all kinds of tooling still needs to be carried out.
However, there are many models that fail to meet the expected sales (suppliers can only bear the risk of funds for the development of these tools), and then the models that meet the sales expectations will have a small change in two years and a major change in three years. (For OEMs, product design and tooling rectification costs will be incurred), coupled with the annual decline, in fact, the life of parts suppliers is not very easy. If the payment cycle is slow, life will be worse.
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Source: Zhihu www.zhihu.com
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